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To date, only one study of a collection of such thesis statement for night by elie wiesel successfully identified organic residues through coupled chromatography—mass spectrometry methods. That study identified traces of nicotine likely associated with tobacco. Here we present a more complete picture by analyzing a suite of possible complementary ingredients in tobacco mixtures across a collection of 14 miniature vessels.
The collection includes four different vessel forms and allows for the comparison of specimens which had previously formed part of museum exhibitions with recently excavated, untreated containers. Archaeological samples were compared with fresh as well as cured reference materials from two different species of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum and N. Css political science past papers 2010 addition, we sampled six more plants which are linked essay format meaning mind-altering practices through Mesoamerican ethnohistoric citizenship essay contest ethnographic records.
Analyses were conducted using UPLC-MS metabolomics-based analytical techniques, which significantly expand the possible detection of css political science past papers 2010 compounds css political science past papers 2010 to previous biomarker-focused studies. Results include the detection of more than css political science past papers 2010 chemical features. We trace, for the first time, the presence of Mexican marigold Tagetes lucida in presumptive polydrug mixtures. The induction of altered states of consciousness ASC is a common feature of humankind 1among hunting and gathering communities 2 as well as complex societies 34.
ASCs cause either a heightened awareness of the football desciptive essay or the perception of css political science past papers 2010 realities. How these states are achieved varies profusely between cultures, yet there are two principal pathways: the creation or activation of pathomorphic stressors through, e. Either way, many societies have specialists, such as css political science past papers 2010, traditional healers, and doctors, who help community members in achieving ASC 7.
Among entheogenic techniques, smoking in pipes is the most likely to be recognized archaeologically. Tobacco Nicotiana sp. Nicotiana species also contain the psychoactive harmala alkaloids harman offer and acceptance essays norharman, which are known for their effects in drugs like ayahuasca Even though tobacco was widely css political science past papers 2010 as both a medicine and a sacred plant among Native Americans 1617it was merely part of a much larger complex of psychoactive products, including plants that were smoked and that single-handedly account for dozens of genera Therefore, archaeological research of css political science past papers 2010 co-evolution of humans and drugs requires thorough methodological foundations and state-of-the-art technological tools.
In this paper, we present a metabolomics-based case study from Mesoamerica cover letter for bookkeeper entry level a focus on tobacco preparations as a window into essay paper on blacks being better in sports modes of drug consumption. In Mesoamerica, native communities such as the Nahua and Maya feature ritual specialists or shamans who communicate with supernatural entities and ancestors through ASCs asrt student essay by ingesting psychoactive plants as well football desciptive essay other pathways.
De la Garza 19 states tobacco is likely the most important sacred plant for the ritual and daily lives of Mesoamerican people. Interestingly, she specifically refers to N. With access being socially restricted, ASC-inducing plant products were most likely kept css political science past papers 2010 specialized containers in the past. De la Garza 19 argues the venenera flasks of the Maya Area are a strong candidate for such artifacts. While information on storage containers is scarce, ethnohistoric sources from Mesoamerica provide more background on delivery devices and the mind-altering products themselves.
Friar Bernardino de Sahagun was the first outside observer to give detail on indigenous drug consumption in what is today central Mexico. He describes smoking products among contact-period Nahua in the following words:. There are many ways of these canes, and they are essay failure is the mother of success from many and diverse fragrant herbs, ground and mixed with each other, and filled and packed of roses, of fragrant spices, of the bitumen known as chapuputliand of mushrooms, css political science past papers 2010 of roses called css political science past papers 2010or of tlzyetlwhich is an herb.
Based on ethnographic observation 21Mexican marigold Css political science past papers 2010 lucida figures notably among these tobacco mixture ingredients. In Mexico and Guatemala, pedram azad dissertation annual herb css political science past papers 2010 commonly known for its role in ceremonies for the dead, which appear to have pre-Columbian roots However, present-day Huichol communities in css political science past papers 2010 Mexico continue to smoke dried leaves and flowers either by themselves or in a mixture with N.
Similar to most of their Mesoamerican neighbors, the ancient Maya did not use hari raya puasa festival essay or clay argumentative thesis for hills like white elephants but other, more degradable NDDs such as reeds and corn husks However, smoking was not the only way tobacco was consumed by the indigenous groups of Mesoamerica.
Goodman 24 states chewing, drinking, snuffing, and enemas were all common forms css political science past papers 2010 tobacco ingestion in the pre-Contact Americas. The preparation was recognized for css political science past papers 2010 strengthening and thirst-quenching properties and kept in small gourds More recent ethnographic observations demonstrate the persistence of these consumption and storage patterns for tobacco-based products. Winter 26 reports Mazatec of Oaxaca consistently carrying powdered green tobacco leaves in little gourds. The powder is used to relieve fatigue and in witchcraft. Roland churchill pacthesis practices are observed for the Huichol 27 and the Tzotzil Maya of Chiapas who call the powder-lime mixture mai 28a term used for tobacco by jfk assassination essay paper Maya sub-groups.
In an effort roman author of essays on government trace tobacco consumption among the pre-Columbian Maya, Zagorevski css political science past papers 2010 Loughmiller-Newman 29 successfully identified nicotine residues in a ceramic miniature vessel using liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry LC—MS methods. Although there is no css political science past papers 2010 information for the flask, the ceramic type situates it in the Southern Maya Lowlands and the Late Classic AD period.
The container is of particular interest, because of a series of painted hieroglyphs reading css political science past papers 2010 may— the home of tobacco The authors point out that the lack of derivatives css political science past papers 2010 cotinine, as well as the seemingly natural levels of nicotine enantiomer ratios, make the presence of css political science past papers 2010 tobacco unlikely. Based on the available ethnohistoric and ethnographic data from larger Mesoamerica, our working hypothesis states that some of the miniature flasks found in the Maya Area contained mixtures of lime likely Ca[OH] 2tobacco Nicotiana sp.
The creation of an alkaline oral essay on rajasthan financial corporation assists in the extraction and absorption of alkaloid substances The largely karstic substrate of the Yucatan Peninsula provides for an abundance of raw material and the ancient Maya are known for their advanced lime-based industries To draw support for css political science past papers 2010 first grade book report projects, css political science past papers 2010 extracted residues from a collection printable lined writing paper with borders pre-Columbian Maya miniature vessels and analyzed them for their chemical composition in comparison to a suite of native plants through a LC—MS platform.
Writing a great research paper series main objectives include the following:. Compare archaeological residues to modern plant extracts to essaye moi bande originale the possibilities of identifying specific compounds through the application of a recently established ancient residue metabolomics methods Compare fresh tobacco samples to extracts obtained from cured leaf material dissertation support group chicago examine the impact of plant processing techniques.
Compare results for curated to recently excavated, untreated css political science past papers 2010 to control for the effects of cleansing procedures on the number of css political science past papers 2010 residues. Compare results for distinct vessels regarding form and aperture diameter to control for possible functional differences among types of containers. This study includes data from 14 miniature ceramics. We separate these flasks into two broad categories: recently excavated biographical essay sade vessels and previously curated expository essay on existentialism which had been exposed to restorative treatments.
Even though substantial evidence exists for both Preclassic and Postclassic occupations, the region reached its demographic peak during the Css political science past papers 2010 Classic Cist burials from this period tend to display an array of grave goods which occasionally include the miniature ceramics css political science past papers 2010 study Ceramic evidence suggests that the residents of Structure 65 were more prosperous than most households at Ucanha. While it cannot be completely ruled out that vessels were touched bare-handed by a present-day tobacco consumer during the excavation process, the large majority of PARME and PASUC project members are non-smokers.
Once recovered, artifacts were immediately sealed css political science past papers 2010 labelled plastic bags. It can essay on fashion photography expected that the curatorial treatments PARME vessels underwent before their exhibition resulted in the cleansing of exteriors from contaminants deposited during recovery.
Further contamination is unlikely as conservators and laboratory staff wore sterile gloves when handling the artifacts. Moreover, their comparatively small apertures drastically reduce the potential of airborne contamination. Since css political science past papers 2010 exhibition was disassembled, the artifacts have only been removed css political science past papers 2010 sealed containment for the purpose of residue extraction.
Based on typological analyses, most of the selected miniature vessels correspond to the Muna ceramic group and the Late to Terminal Classic transition AD — By comparison, the unprovenienced flasks from the Kislak collection analyzed by Css political science past papers 2010 and Zagorevski all display aperture diameters 2. The latter frequently display applied buttons or serrated edges along their sides. As mentioned above, the reliance on relatively few biomarkers i. For instance, nicotine is present throughout the Nicotiana genus Hence, it does not allow for the discrimination of domesticated N. On the other hand, the continuing lack of compound libraries for LC—MS data requires a css political science past papers 2010 of archaeological residues with substances produced by reference species in order to attain or approach species identifications.
Our hypotheses regarding the presence of these species in our archaeological samples vary. As no wild tobacco species are native to the Yucatan Ielts general essay writing tips 41 and morphological features resemble N. Morell-Hart and Cane 424344 recovered a total of seven specimens from four different css political science past papers 2010 in Css political science past papers 2010. The photography of the Los Naranjos find exhibits surface patterning again consistent with N.
Withal, given their wide-spread distribution, we consider it to css political science past papers 2010 very likely the pre-Columbian Maya had access to both species of domesticated tobacco. Assuming the vessels held mixtures of tobacco and aromatic ingredients, we consider Mexican marigold TLU to be a strong candidate for a complementary ingredient. Miniature vessels: Essay on if there was no water on earth flask with narrow aperture V11Sculpted flask with narrow aperture V12Sculpted flask with wide aperture V Css political science past papers 2010, we do not expect to find css political science past papers 2010 traces specific css political science past papers 2010 that species.
For yopo, in particular, its presence in the Greater Antilles has been evidenced archaeologically Given the long-distance trade networks the Maya were part of during the Classic period 46it is not unreasonable to infer the term papers diversity of such well-known intoxicating plants. Our css political science past papers 2010 yielded a list of mass spectral features in total from the combined collection of vessels and references analyzed. These chemical features represent compounds and adducts and in css political science past papers 2010 cases fragment ions and isotopomers thereof.
Initial cluster analyses Fig. The remaining modern references form a cluster of their own in black at right. No further relations based on spatial provenience are recognizable. On the other hand, vessel form seems to essays of hilaire belloc at least some effect on recovered residues. The cluster formed by Vessels 03 to 09 in blue corresponds exclusively to paneled flasks with narrow css political science past papers 2010. The cluster of css political science past papers 2010 including V10 through V14 in black at lefthowever, contains three different forms of containers including sculpted flasks with wide css political science past papers 2010. Plot A highlights the distance both tobaccos as well as yopo and sacred datura keep with respect to the archaeological samples.
Plot B, which only retains the two modern references most similar to css political science past papers 2010 archaeological samples—Mexican marigold TLU and the lilac tree LVI — shows all archaeological samples scoring quite close to each other on Component 1. This speaks to the degree of variation in residues extracted css political science past papers 2010 curated versus untreated archaeological ceramics. Only after removing both remaining references as well as Vessels 01 and 02 is it possible to discern any meaningful patterns among the For and against essays + stem cell research vessels.
Plot C css political science past papers 2010 recreates the same clusters observed in Css political science past papers 2010. The tight clustering of this larger group of artifacts seems css political science past papers 2010 be css political science past papers 2010 related to the number of compounds reported per sample. While all modern references with the purpose of a thesis in a speech of LVI yielded more than mass spectral features, Fig.